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The J. Oliver Buswell Jr. Library
Turabian Style Guide
Turabian Style Guide
Articles
Basic Article Form

see Turabian §17.2 (pp. 181 ff.)

note 1 John A. Doe, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal enumeration (date): pages.
bibliography Doe, John A. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal enumeration (date): pages.

For enumeration, the volume number immediately follows the periodical title without any intervening punctuation (e.g., Ex Auditu 21). If an issue number is also given, it is added after the volume number and preceded by a comma and the abbreviation “no.” (e.g., Faith and Philosophy 25, no. 3). However, if the periodical uses only issue numbers, and not volume numbers, then the issue number is placed after the periodical title, but is preceded by a comma and the abbreviation “no.” (e.g., Image, no. 58). In all cases use arabic numerals even if the periodical uses roman numerals.

For the date, follow the format used by the periodical—this could be a season (e.g., Spring 2007), a month (e.g., March 2007), or a specific day (e.g., March 15, 2007).

Journal Article

see Turabian §17.2.1–5 (pp. 181–184)

note 1 David Clyde Jones, “The Westminster Confession on Divorce and Remarriage,” Presbyterion 16, no. 1 (Spring 1990): 32.
bibliography Jones, David Clyde. “The Westminster Confession on Divorce and Remarriage.” Presbyterion 16, no. 1 (Spring 1990): 17-40.

Note that for journal ariticles a colon is used before the page numbers.

Magazine Article

see Turabian §17.3 (pp. 185–186)

note 1 Robert Peterson, “Prophet, Priest, & King: The Perfect One of Israel,” Covenant, Fall 2004, 4.
bibliography Peterson, Robert. “Prophet, Priest, & King: The Perfect One of Israel.” Covenant, Fall 2004, 2–5.

Note that magazines are usually cited by date only, even if a volume and/or issue number is given. Also note that the page numbers are preceded by a comma, not a colon.

Newspaper Article

see Turabian §17.4 (pp. 186–188)

note 1 Amy White, “At One with the Shepherd,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 20, 2003.
bibliography [Newspaper articles are usually not included in the bibliography.]

Note that pages numbers are omitted from the citation for a newspaper article.

Article with Multiple Authors

see Turabian §17.1.1 (pp. 162–167)

note 1 Charles Kuykendall and C. John Collins, “1 Peter 3:15a: A Critical Review of English Versions,” Presbyterion 29, no. 2 (Fall 2003): 81.
bibliography Kuykendall, Charles, and C. John Collins. “1 Peter 3:15a: A Critical Review of English Versions.” Presbyterion 29, no. 2 (Fall 2003): 76–84.
Book Review

see Turabian §17.5.4 (p. 192)

The following form can be used for citing reviews of individual books. Longer review articles (especially those that cover multiple works) and full-fledged literature reviews are more aptly cited using the form above for a journal article.

note 1 Michael D. Williams, review of The Evangelical Left: Encountering Postconservative Evangelical Theology, by Millard J. Erickson, Presbyterion 23, no. 2 (Fall 1997): 119.
bibliography Williams, Michael D. Review of The Evangelical Left: Encountering Postconservative Evangelical Theology, by Millard J. Erickson. Presbyterion 23, no. 2 (Fall 1997): 119–120.
Books
Basic Book Form

see Turabian §17.1 (pp. 162 ff.)

note 1 John A. Doe, Title of Book (Location: Publisher, year), pages.
bibliography Doe, John A. Title of Book. Location: Publisher, year.
Book by a Single Author

see Turabian pp. 162–163

note 1 V. Philips Long, The Art of Biblical History (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), 123.
bibliography Long, V. Philips. The Art of Biblical History. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994.
Book by Multiple Authors

see Turabian p. 163

If the book has just two or three authors, list all of the authors' names in both the note and the bibliography.

note 1 William W. Klein, Robert L. Hubbard, Jr., and Craig L. Blomberg, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation (Dallas: Word Books, 1993), 74.
bibliography Klein, William W., Robert L. Hubbard, Jr., and Craig L. Blomberg. Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. Dallas: Word Books, 1993.

If the book has four or more authors, list only the first author's name followed by “et al.” (Latin, et alii, “and others”) in the note. In the bibliography, list all of the authors.

note 1 Quentin J. Schultze et al., Dancing in the Dark: Youth, Popular Culture and the Electronic Media (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1991), 189.
bibliography Schultze, Quentin J., Roy M. Anker, James D. Bratt, William D. Romanowski, John W. Worst, and Lambert Zuidervaart. Dancing in the Dark: Youth, Popular Culture and the Electronic Media. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1991.
Book with Editor as Author

see Turabian p. 164

note 1 William S. Barker and Samuel T. Long, eds., Sermons that Shaped America (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2004), 79.
bibliography Barker, William S., and Samuel T. Long, eds. Sermons that Shaped America. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2004.

Note: If there is only one editor, use the singular abbreviation “ed.” instead of the plural “eds.”

Book with an Editor or Translator

see Turabian pp. 163–164

note 1 Gerhard Maier, Biblical Hermeneutics, trans. Robert W. Yarbrough (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1994), 17.
2 C. S. Lewis, Christian Reflections, ed. Walter Hooper (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1967), 83.
bibliography Maier, Gerhard. Biblical Hermeneutics. Translated by Robert W. Yarbrough. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1994.
Lewis, C. S. Christian Reflections. Edited by Walter Hooper. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1967.

Note: If the book has both an editor and a translator, list them in the order in which they appear on the title page of the book.

Revised Edition of a Book

see Turabian §17.1.3 (pp. 170–171)

Only specify the edition if you are citing an edition other than the first. Use abbreviations whenever possible (e.g., 2nd ed., rev. ed.).

note 1 Bryan Chapell, Christ-Centered Preaching: Redeeming the Expository Sermon, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI : Baker Academic, 2005), 22.
bibliography Chapell, Bryan. Christ-Centered Preaching: Redeeming the Expository Sermon. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, MI : Baker Academic, 2005.

Note: The first letter of the edition designation should be lowercase in the note and uppercase in the bibliography.

Reprint of a Previously Published Book

see Turabian §17.1.3 (p. 171)

Specify the publication date of the original printing and then give the publication details of the version that you consulted, indicating that they refer to the reprint edition. In the footnote, place a semi-colon after the original’s date of publication, and use the abbreviation “repr.”.

note 1 Edward Payson, Sermons for Christian Families: On the Most Important Relative Duties (1832; repr., Birmingham, AL: Solid Ground Christian Books, 2009), 55.
bibliography Payson, Edward. Sermons for Christian Families: On the Most Important Relative Duties. 1832. Reprint, Birmingham, AL: Solid Ground Christian Books, 2009.
Multi-volume Work

see Turabian §17.1.4 (pp. 171–172)

In a note, put the cited volume number immediately before the page number and separate them with a colon. In the bibliography entry, indicate the volume number that you cited in your notes.

note 1 Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1946), 2:257.
bibliography Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology. Vol. 2. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1946.

If you cited more than one volume in your notes, then you may cite the set as a whole in the bibliography by indicating the total number of volumes in the set.

bibliography Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology. 3 vols. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1946.
Book in a Series

see Turabian §17.1.5 (pp. 172–173)

If a book is part of a formal series (such as a commentary series, or a series of published papers), the name of the series may be included in the citation. The series title should be presented in roman type (not italicized).

If the items within the series are numbered, the number of the work cited may optionally be included immediately after the series title with no intervening punctuation or designations such as “vol.” or “no.” (e.g., New Testament Studies 5). However, if the series uses multiple levels of enumeration (e.g., vol. 3, no. 1 or no. 37, pt. 2), then include the abbreviated designations and place a comma before each. Some series are so large that their numbering has been started over in later publications. In such cases give an appropriate designation such as “o.s.” (old series), “n.s.” (new series), “2nd ser.,” etc. between the series title and the item number with a comma on either side (e.g., Theological Studies, n.s., 24).

note 1 Stephen S. Smalley, 1, 2, 3 John, Word Biblical Commentary (Waco, TX: Word Books, 1984), 82.
2 Michael Parsons, Luther and Calvin on Old Testament Narratives: Reformation Thought and Narrative Text, Texts and Studies in Religion 106 (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2004), 167.
bibliography Smalley, Stephen S. 1, 2, 3 John. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco, TX: Word Books, 1984.
Parsons, Michael. Luther and Calvin on Old Testament Narratives: Reformation Thought and Narrative Text. Texts and Studies in Religion 106. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2004.
Book with Multiple Additional Elements

When citing a book that involves some combination of editors, translators, multiple volumes, multiple editions, a series title, etc., build the citation piece by piece in the following order using the guidance in the sections above to format each individual element.

  1. Name of author(s)
  2. Title of book
  3. Name of translator(s) and/or editor(s)
  4. Edition designation (if not the first)
  5. Volume number cited or total count of volumes [in bibliography only]
  6. Series title and enumeration (if given)
  7. Facts of publication
  8. Volume and page numbers cited [in notes only]
note 2 Walther Zimmerli, Ezekiel: A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Ezekiel, trans. Ronald E. Clements, ed. Frank Moore Cross and Klaus Baltzer with Leonard Jay Greenspoon, Hermeneia (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979–83), 1:142.
3 G. V. Lechler and K. Gerok, Theological and Homiletical Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles: Specially Designed and Adapted for the Use of Ministers and Students, ed. J. P. Lange, trans. Paton J. Gloag, 2nd ed., Clark's Foreign Theological Library (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1869), 1:52.
bibliography Zimmerli, Walther. Ezekiel: A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Ezekiel. Translated by Ronald E. Clements. Edited by Frank Moore Cross and Klaus Baltzer with Leonard Jay Greenspoon. 2 vols. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979–83.
Lechler, G. V., and K. Gerok. Theological and Homiletical Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles: Specially Designed and Adapted for the Use of Ministers and Students. Edited by J. P. Lange. Translated by Paton J. Gloag. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Clark's Foreign Theological Library. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1869.
Essay/Article within a Book

see Turabian §17.1.8 (pp. 177–180)

note 1 C. John Collins, “What the Reader Wants and the Translator Can Give: 1 John as a Test Case,” in All for Jesus: A Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of Covenant Theological Seminary, ed. Robert A. Peterson and Sean Michael Lucas (Fearn, Ross-shire, Great Britain: Mentor, 2006), 347.
bibliography Collins, C. John. “What the Reader Wants and the Translator Can Give: 1 John as a Test Case.” In All for Jesus: A Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of Covenant Theological Seminary, edited by Robert A. Peterson and Sean Michael Lucas, 333–59. Fearn, Ross-shire, Great Britain: Mentor, 2006.

Note: Be sure to include the full page range of the essay/article in the bibliography entry.

Dissertation or Thesis

see Turabian §17.6.1 (pp. 194–195)

note 1 Mark L. Dalbey, “A Biblical, Historical, and Contemporary Look at the Regulative Principle of Worship” (D.Min. diss., Covenant Theological Seminary, 1999), 92.
bibliography Dalbey, Mark L. “A Biblical, Historical, and Contemporary Look at the Regulative Principle of Worship.” D.Min. diss., Covenant Theological Seminary, 1999.

Note: A dissertation is a requirement of a doctoral degree; a writing project for any other degree is a thesis. If you are citing a thesis, replace “diss.” (as in the above example) with “thesis”.

Encyclopedia, Dictionary, Lexicon, or Concordance

see Turabian §17.5.3 (pp. 191–192)

Standard, well-known reference works are usually cited in the notes only, and are excluded from the bibliography. Such works may be cited using standard abbreviations, such as those found in the SBL Handbook of Style; or by title alone, omitting the other publication details.

For works that are arranged alphabetically, you may use the relevant entry name preceded by “s.v.” (Latin, sub verbo, “under the word”; pl. s.vv.) in place of the volume and page numbers. However, when the entries are signed (i.e. the contributor who authored each entry is indicated), you should instead adapt the note format for citing an essay/article within a book (note 2 below).

note 1 BDAG, s.v. “εἴδωλον, ου, τό”
2 Christopher J. H. Wright, “אֶרֶץ,” in NIDOTTE, 1:520.

Lesser known reference works should be cited in full in both the notes and the bibliography.

note 10 John Christman, “Property Rights,” in Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, ed. Ruth Chadwick (San Diego: Academic Press, 1998), 3:689.
bibliography Christman, John. “Property Rights.” In Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, edited by Ruth Chadwick, 3:683–692. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998.
Online Sources
Web Site

see Turabian §17.7.1 (p. 198)

When citing web sites, try to include as many of the following items as possible: author of the page cited (or else the name of the person or entity responsible for the web site as a whole), title of the page cited, name of the web site, URL of the page cited, and access date.

note 1 Daniel B. Wallace, “A Brief Word Study on Skuvbalon,” Bible.org, http://bible.org/page.php?page_id=5318 (accessed November 11, 2008).
bibliography Wallace, Daniel B. “A Brief Word Study on Skuvbalon.” Bible.org. http://bible.org/page.php?page_id=5318 (accessed November 11, 2008).

If a URL must be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a double slash (//) or a single slash (/); or before any other punctuation marks or symbols (period, hyphen, underline [_], question mark, equals sign, ampersand, number sign, percent symbol, tilde [~], comma, etc.).

Blog Entry

see Turabian §17.7.2 (p. 199)

Follow the basic pattern for citing a web site and include that date that the entry was posted. Blog entries generally do not need to be included in your bibliography, unless an entry is of particular significance to your work and/or cited frequently.

note 1 Sean Lucas, “The Difference Between a Lecture and a Sermon,” Ref21 Blog, entry posted January 19, 2012, http://www.reformation21.org/blog/2012/01/the-difference-between-a-lectu.php (accessed April 11, 2013).

If a URL must be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a double slash (//) or a single slash (/); or before any other punctuation marks or symbols (period, hyphen, underline [_], question mark, equals sign, ampersand, number sign, percent symbol, tilde [~], comma, etc.).

Article from an Online Journal (E-Journal)

see Turabian §17.2.7 (p. 185)

Follow the form for an article in print, and then add the URL for the article and the date on which you accessed it.

note 1 Greg Smith, “Global Systems and Religious Diversity in the Inner City: Migrants in the East End of London,” International Journal on Multicultural Societies 2, no. 1 (2000): 28, http://www.unesco.org/shs/ijms/vol2/issue1/art2 (accessed July 17, 2008).
bibliography Smith, Greg. “Global Systems and Religious Diversity in the Inner City: Migrants in the East End of London.” International Journal on Multicultural Societies 2, no. 1 (2000): 16–39. http://www.unesco.org/shs/ijms/vol2/issue1/art2 (accessed July 17, 2008).

If a page number is not available for the note, include a descriptive locator such as the heading under which the quote can be found.

note 1 Greg Smith, “Global Systems and Religious Diversity in the Inner City: Migrants in the East End of London,” International Journal on Multicultural Societies 2, no. 1 (2000), under “7. Impact of the Global Missions Movement,” http://www.unesco.org/shs/ijms/vol2/issue1/art2 (accessed July 17, 2008).

If a URL must be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a double slash (//) or a single slash (/); or before any other punctuation marks or symbols (period, hyphen, underline [_], question mark, equals sign, ampersand, number sign, percent symbol, tilde [~], comma, etc.).

Online Book (E-Book)

see Turabian §17.1.10 (p. 181)

Follow the form for a book in print, and then add the URL for the item and the date on which you accessed it.

note 1 John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989), 53, http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.iii.vi.html (accessed September 29, 2008).
bibliography Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion. Translated by Henry Beveridge. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.html (accessed September 29, 2008).

If a page number is not available for the note, include a descriptive locator such as the heading under which the quote can be found.

note 1 John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1989), under “4,” http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.iii.vi.html (accessed September 29, 2008).

If a URL must be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a double slash (//) or a single slash (/); or before any other punctuation marks or symbols (period, hyphen, underline [_], question mark, equals sign, ampersand, number sign, percent symbol, tilde [~], comma, etc.).

Audio & Video
Sound Recording

see Turabian §17.8.4 (pp. 202–203)

Include as much information as possible about the recording, including the names of the performers, the name of the production company, any identifying numbers (catalog number, etc.), and the media format (CD, audiocassette, etc.).

note 1 Jerram Barrs, The God of Grace and Glory, L'Abri Audio Library (Chesterton, IN: Sound Word Associates, 2003), CD.
2 N. T. Wright, The Redemption of Creation, RGCD2900B1, disc 3 of Kingdom, Spirit & the People of God: Eschatology and the Church's Task and Role in Pauline Theology (Vancouver, BC: Regent College, 1999), CD.
bibliography Barrs, Jerram. The God of Grace and Glory. L'Abri Audio Library. Chesterton, IN: Sound Word Associates, 2003. CD.
Wright, N. T. Kingdom, Spirit & the People of God: Eschatology and the Church's Task and Role in Pauline Theology. Vancouver, BC: Regent College, 1999. 6 CDs.
Video Recording

see Turabian §17.8.5 (p. 203)

Generally, follow the pattern for books and then indicate the media format (DVD, VHS, etc.).

note 1 Susan Heitler, The Angry Couple: Conflict-focused Treatment (Hicksville, NY: Newbridge Communications, 1995), VHS.
bibliography Heitler, Susan. The Angry Couple: Conflict-focused Treatment. Hicksville, NY: Newbridge Communications, 1995. VHS.
Primary Sources
Class Lecture

see Turabian §17.6.2 (p. 195)

note 1 David Calhoun, “Ancient and Medieval Church History,” (Lecture, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, MO, November 14, 2002).
bibliography Calhoun, David. “Ancient and Medieval Church History.” Lecture, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, MO, November 14, 2002.
Other Citation Situations
Subsequent Citations

see Turabian §16.4 (pp. 154 ff.)

If you are citing the same source multiple times in a row, you may use “Ibid.” (Latin, ibidem, “in the same place”) followed by the page number (if different). (See Turabian §16.4.2.)

15 V. Philips Long, The Art of Biblical History (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), 123.

16 Ibid.

17 Ibid., 126.

If there are intervening citations to other works, you can use shortened citations after the first full citation.

20 Long, 95.

or

20 Long, Art of Biblical History, 95.

Including the title of the book or article is only required if necessary for clarity, such as when you cite multiple works by the same author. Likewise, when citing works by different authors with the same last name, you should include each author's first name in the shortened citations. (See Turabian §16.4.1.)

One Source Quoted in Another

see Turabian §17.10 (p. 215)

If you find a useful quote from another source in the one that you are reading, you should try to find the original source of the quote so that you can examine it in context. However, if you cannot track down the original, you may use the following form.

note 1 David C. Steinmetz, “The Protestant Minister and the Teaching Office of the Church,” Theological Education 19 (1983): 57, quoted in D. A. Carson, Exegetical Fallacies (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1996), 92.
bibliography Steinmetz, David C. “The Protestant Minister and the Teaching Office of the Church.” Theological Education 19 (1983): 45–64. Quoted in D. A. Carson, Exegetical Fallacies. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1996.